Antibiotic Utilization and Efficacy Associated with Treating Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections in Texas Medicaid Patients in the First Year of Life

Alana Coleman, Yogesh Vohra, Karen Rascati, Sarah Kubes, Brady Moffett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Historically, amoxicillin (Amoxil) has been used as a first-line agent to treat pediatric urinary tract infections (UTIs). However, emerging antibiotic resistance in urinary pathogens has led to broader treatment options, such as cefdinir (Omnicef). This shift in prescribing practices is predicted to vary among place of service and gender due to differing institutional protocols and antimicrobial stewardship practices. Objective: This study aimed to describe the antibiotic utilization patterns associated with treating pediatric UTIs in Texas Medicaid patients and to assess the real-world efficacy of the antibiotics that were prescribed. Methods: Texas Medicaid prescription and medical claims data for patients under 1 year of age were included in the analysis if they presented with a UTI to the healthcare practitioner's office or the emergency department (ED) and were treated with an outpatient antibiotic. Treatment efficacy was assessed by whether a patient received a second (different) antibiotic within 7 days of their initial antibiotic fill. Results: A total of 12,795 visits met inclusion criteria; 12,561 visits included prescriptions for the top 4 antibiotics prescribed: cefdinir (50%), amoxicillin (25%), cephalexin (Keflex; 13%), and amoxicillin-clavulanate (Augmentin; 12%). Cefdinir utilization predominated in both places of service [office (50%) and ED (55%)], and gender [males (47%) and females (52%)]. Controlling for gender and place of service, initial treatment with amoxicillin when compared with cefdinir (OR = 2.54; 95% confidence intervals: 1.84-3.54; P < 0.001) was associated with a greater rate of treatment failure. Conclusions: In this study of Texas Medicaid patients, the widespread utilization of cefdinir may be appropriate for the empiric treatment of uncomplicated UTIs because of its low rate of treatment failure compared to other commonly used antibiotics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)993-996
Number of pages4
JournalPediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021


  • antibiotic
  • outpatient
  • pediatrics
  • treatment failure
  • urinary tract infection
  • utilization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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