Anti-caries evaluation of a nano-hydroxyapatite dental lotion for use after toothbrushing: An in situ study

Bennett T. Amaechi, Dina O. Alshareif, Parveez A.Abdul Azees, Marina A. Shehata, Patricia P. Lima, Azadeh Abdollahi, Parisa S. Kalkhorani, Veronica Evans, Ariana Bagheri, Linda O. Okoye

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Objectives: The aim of this randomized, double-blind, two-arm crossover in situ study was to investigate whether nano-hydroxyapatite (nanoHAP) dental lotion (Apagard Deep Care) applied immediately after tooth-brushing with nanoHAP toothpaste (Apagard M-plus) enhances the remineralization promotion and the demineralization inhibition efficacies of nanoHAP toothpastes. Methods: 64 sound enamel blocks and 64 blocks bearing artificially-produced initial caries were produced from human permanent molar teeth. During each treatment period, lasting 14 days per arm, two blocks, one sound and one lesion-bearing, were exposed to either 5% nanoHAP-containing or placebo dental lotion after tooth-brushing with 5% nanoHAP toothpaste, via an intra-oral appliance worn by 30 adults in each of the study groups. Baseline and post-test mineral loss were quantified using transverse microradiography (TMR). One-sided t-test of one group mean was used for intragroup comparison, while two-sided t-test of two independent means was used to compare the two dental lotions. Results: Pairwise comparison (baseline vs. post-test) indicated significant (p<.001) remineralization by nanoHAP toothpaste in both groups. However, when compared against each other, there was a significantly (p<.001) greater percentage of remineralization with nanoHAP lotion [58.4(±1.8)%] than with placebo lotion [37.7(±2.2)%]. TMR examination showed absolute demineralization inhibition in sound enamel blocks exposed to either lotions. Conclusions: Toothpaste containing 5% nanoHAP effectively remineralized initial caries and inhibited demineralization of healthy enamel; however, the application of a dental lotion containing 5% nanoHAP after brushing resulted in superior remineralization compared to a placebo lotion. Clinical Significance: Dental lotion containing 5% nanohydroxyapatite used immediately after toothbrushing with 5% nanohydroxyapatite toothpaste can serve as an adjunct to enhance the clinical benefits of the toothpaste.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number103863
JournalJournal of Dentistry
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • Anticaries
  • Dental lotion
  • Hydroxyapatite
  • Nano-hydroxyapatite
  • Remineralization
  • Toothpaste

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Dentistry


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