Our approach to the problem of ankle sprains and instability is reviewed. After diagnostic evaluation (including stress roentgenography, arthrography, or tenography if necessary), most of our patients are treated either by taping if they have a grade 1 or 2 sprain or by casting if they have a grade 3 disruption. If the injury should progress to chronic instability despite this treatment regimen, which is an unusual occurrence, satisfactory reconstructive procedures are available. Indications for acute primary repair are limited.
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