Angiogenic activity of an enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and EMD-derived proteins: An experimental study in mice

Daniel S. Thoma, Cristina C. Villar, David L. Carnes, Michel Dard, Yong Hee Patricia Chun, David L. Cochran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Objectives: To determine whether all or only certain proteins in an enamel matrix derivative (EMD) are angiogenic. Materials and Methods: The angiogenic effect was analysed using an in vivo angiogenesis assay. Silicon tubes were filled with or without potential and known angiogenic-modulating factors: (i) an EMD parent, (ii) nine pools of EMD proteins, (iii) fibroblast growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor and (iv) amelogenin. Silicon tubes were implanted subcutaneously in mice. Dextran-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was injected via the tail vein, mice were euthanized and tubes were retrieved. Neovascularization was determined by measuring the amount of dextran-FITC within the tubes. Results: The greatest angiogenic potential of the EMD parent was at a weight of 125 ng, resulting in a 4.3-fold increase compared with the negative control. Five pools of EMD proteins showed a stronger angiogenic activity than the EMD parent. Pool 5 showed the greatest angiogenic activity, when compared with the negative control (8.1-fold increase) and with 125 ng of the EMD parent (4.2-fold increase). Amelogenin demonstrated a significantly higher angiogenic activity than the negative control (increase up to 4.0-fold) and the EMD parent (increase up to 1.6-fold). Conclusions: EMD parent, recombinant porcine amelogenin and certain pools of EMD proteins induced significant angiogenesis compared with the controls using a standardized in vivo assay.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)253-260
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Clinical Periodontology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2011


  • amelogenin
  • angiogenesis
  • enamel matrix proteins
  • fibroblast growth factor
  • periodontal regeneration
  • vascular endothelial growth factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics


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