Analysis of MYC bound loci identified by CpG island arrays shows that Max is essential for MYC-dependent repression

Daniel Y.L. Mao, John D. Watson, Pearlly S. Yan, Dalia Barsyte-Lovejoy, Fereshteh Khosravi, W. Wei-Lynn Wong, Peggy J. Farnham, Tim H.M. Huang, Linda Z. Penn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

138 Scopus citations


The c-myc proto-oncogene encodes a transcription factor, c-Myc, which is deregulated and/or overexpressed in many human cancers. Despite c-Myc's importance, the identity of Myc-regulated genes and the mechanism by which Myc regulates these genes remain unclear. By combining chromatin immunoprecipitation with CpG island arrays, we identified 177 human genomic loci that are bound by Myc in vivo. Analyzing a cohort of known and novel Myc target genes showed that Myc-associated protein X, Max, also bound to these regulatory regions. Indeed, Max is bound to these loci in the presence or absence of Myc. The Myc:Max interaction is essential for Myc-dependent transcriptional activation; however, we show that Max bound targets also include Myc-repressed genes. Moreover, we show that the interaction between Myc and Max is essential for gene repression to occur. Taken together, the identification and analysis of Myc bound target genes supports a model whereby Max plays an essential and universal role in the mechanism of Myc-dependent transcriptional regulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)882-886
Number of pages5
JournalCurrent Biology
Issue number10
StatePublished - May 13 2003
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


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