The relevance of a TNF-α promoter polymorphism, a G-to-A polymorphic sequence at position-308, was examined to test whether variant alleles of TNF-α affect susceptibility to infection with HIV-1 and progression to AIDS. Analysis of specimens from cohorts of HIV-1 positive homosexual men demonstrated that 3 of the 32 (9.4%) HIV-1-infected long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) were homozygous for the uncommon TNF-2 allele compared with 3 of the 196 (1.5%) HIV-1-seronegative blood donors and uninfected homosexual men (p < 0.05). There was no difference in heterozygosity among HIV-1-seropositive or -seronegative groups, although some of the seropositive men heterozygous for the TNF2 genotype were also heterozygous for CCR5Δ32. However, no significant association was found between TNF genotypes and time of survival, CD4 slopes, or viral loads when seroincident (n = 109) and seroprevalent cases (n = 442) from the Chicago MACS were analyzed. Functional analysis of lymphocytes from the seronegative group revealed no difference in endogenous or mitogen-induced TNF-α production, as well as susceptibility to in vitro HIV-1 infection between different TNF-genotype donors. These data suggest that TNF genotypes do not play a direct role in HIV-1 disease progression; however, they could potentially be part of a multigenic linkage that may be involved in delaying progression to AIDS.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases