An obstetric-specific surgical Apgar score predicts maternal morbidity from cesarean hysterectomy for placenta accreta spectrum

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Abstract

Objective: Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) is a continuum of placental conditions characterized by significant maternal and neonatal morbidity. Tools to accurately predict postoperative morbidity have been lacking due to the hemodynamic changes of pregnancy. The surgical Apgar score (SAS) is a 10-point scale that assesses heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and estimated blood loss. The SAS has been validated to predict morbidity such as blood transfusion and reoperation. Methods: We created an obstetric-specific SAS (ObSAS) scale for physiologic changes of pregnancy (two-fold increase in blood loss, 10% increased heart rate, and 5% decreased mean arterial pressure) and analyzed 110 cases of PAS who underwent cesarean hysterectomy. Results: An ObSAS of 0–4 (poorest score) was significantly associated with increased risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission (odds ratio [OR] 40.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.9–742.9), transfusion >4 units (26/26 patients), and greater surgical morbidity (OR 22.7, 95% CI 4.4–415.0). ObSAS of 9–10 resulted in no ICU admissions (0/12), fewer blood transfusions (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.1–0.4). and less surgical morbidity (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01–0.37). Conclusion: Given the overall surgical morbidity associated with PAS cesarean hysterectomy, the ObSAS score is a powerful tool with excellent predictive capabilities for ICU admission, blood transfusion, and surgical morbidity, allowing for resource allocation, prophylactic interventions, and optimal patient outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)912-917
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Volume164
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2024

Keywords

  • abnormal placentation
  • anesthesia
  • cesarean hysterectomy
  • placenta accreta

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

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