An Analysis of Conflicts Across Role 1 Guidelines

Sarah A. Johnson, Ryann S. Lauby, Andrew D. Fisher, Jason F. Naylor, Michael D. April, Brit Long, Steven G. Schauer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Introduction: Role 1 care is vital to patient survival and includes many echelons of care from point-of-injury first aid to medical attention at battalion aid stations. Many guidelines are written for Role 1 care providers to optimize care for different scenarios. Differences in the guidelines lead to confusion and discrepancies between the types of treatment medical care providers provide. Although the guidelines were written for different areas of care, uniformity between the guidelines is needed and will lead to a reduced mortality rate. Materials and Methods: It was determined that the Tactical Combat Casualty Care Guidelines, Prolonged Field Care Guidelines, Joint Trauma System Clinical Practice Guidelines, and Standard Medical Operating Guidelines from medical evacuation were the military medical guidelines most relevant to Role 1 care. These Guidelines were compared side by side to determine the differences between them. Results: Although the guidelines were largely similar, many major differences were found between them. Our online tables contain large inconsistences between guidelines including direct contradictions in conversion of junctional tourniquets and the administration of tranexamic acid. Conclusions: Role 1 care is vital to patient survival, including care from point of injury to battalion aid stations, but the guidelines available to instruct this care and the guidance on which personnel should provide this care are conflicting. This lack of clarity and consistency may adversely impact treatment outcomes. The reduction or elimination of conflicting information across the various guidelines, augmentation of guidance for pediatric care, more specific guidance for unique levels of care, and clearer delineation of the Role 1 phases of care (as well as which guidelines are most appropriate to each) should be considered as urgent priorities within the military medical community.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E263-E274
JournalMilitary medicine
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - Mar 1 2022
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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