An Analysis of Adherence to Tactical Combat Casualty Care Guidelines for the Administration of Tranexamic Acid

Andrew D. Fisher, Brandon M. Carius, Michael D. April, Jason F. Naylor, Joseph K. Maddry, Steven G. Schauer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background: Hemorrhage is the leading cause of potentially survivable deaths in combat. Previous research demonstrated that tranexamic acid (TXA) administration decreased mortality among casualties. For casualties expected to receive a transfusion, the Committee on Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) recommends TXA. Despite this, the use and adherence of TXA in the military prehospital combat setting, in accordance with TCCC guidelines, is low. Objectives: We sought to analyze TXA administration and use among combat casualties reasonably expected to require blood transfusion, casualties with tourniquet placement, amputations, and gunshot wounds. Methods: Based on TCCC guidelines, we measured proportions of patients receiving prehospital TXA: casualties undergoing tourniquet placement, casualties sustaining amputation proximal to the phalanges, patients sustaining gunshot wounds, and patients receiving ≥10 units of blood products within 24 h of injury. Univariable and multivariable analyses were also completed. Results: Within our dataset, 255 subjects received TXA. Four thousand seventy-one subjects had a tourniquet placed, of whom 135 (3.3%) received prehospital TXA; 1899 subjects had an amputation proximal to the digit with 106 (5.6%) receiving prehospital TXA; and 6660 subjects had a gunshot wound with 88 (1.3%) receiving prehospital TXA. Of 4246 subjects who received ≥10 units of blood products within the first 24 h, 177 (4.2%) received prehospital TXA. Conclusions: We identified low TXA administration despite TCCC recommendations. Future studies should seek to both identify reasons for limited TXA administration and methods to increase future utilization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)646-652
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Emergency Medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • TCCC
  • hemorrhage
  • tourniquet
  • tranexamic acid
  • trauma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine


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