Amino acid protection of cultured kidney tubule cells against calcium ionophore-induced lethal cell injury

J. M. Weinberg, M. A. Venkatachalam, N. F. Roeser, J. A. Davis, J. Varani, K. J. Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations

Abstract

Treatment of two cultured renal tubule epithelial cell lines, MDCK and LLC-PK1, with ionomycin produced rapidly evolving models of lethal cell injury characterized by increases of cytosolic free calcium to the μM level within 15 minutes followed by lactate dehydrogenase release and failure to exclude vital dyes that began between 30 and 60 minutes and became extensive after 60 minutes. The pattern of injury was similar when the mitochondrial uncoupler, carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone, was added to ionomycin. Carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone alone produced severe ATP depletion but not lactate dehydrogenase release. Inclusion of glycine in the experimental medium at concentrations ranging from 0.25 mM to 5 mM did not affect the increases of cytosolic free calcium or ATP depletion but was protective against enzyme release and failure to exclude vital dyes for 180 minutes. Maximal protection was achieved at glycine concentrations between 1 and 5 mM. Several other small neutral amino acids including alanine, β-alanine, L-serine, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, and α-aminoisobutyric acid also had protective effects but, glucose, pyruvate, glutamate, glutamine, leucine, valine, and taurine did not. These data indicate that potent protective effects of glycine and other small neutral amino acids previously shown in fresh tubule preparations are fully expressed in cultured tubule cells of diverse origin when appropriate acute injury models are used and the protective effects are sustained for long durations. The suitability of cultured cell lines for prolonged exposure studies will provide a powerful way of further exploring mechanisms of these effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)671-678
Number of pages8
JournalLaboratory Investigation
Volume65
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1991
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Fura-2
  • Glycine
  • Ionomycin
  • LLC-PK
  • MDCK

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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