Alterations in Immune Responses Are Associated with Dysfunctional Intracellular Signaling in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Men and Women with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

Ramasamy Vasantharekha, Hannah P. Priyanka, Rahul S. Nair, Lalgi Hima, Uday P. Pratap, Avathvadi V. Srinivasan, Srinivasan ThyagaRajan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Deficits in the neuroendocrine-immune network in the periphery associated with the onset and progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have not been extensively studied. The present study correlatively examines the association between cell-mediated immune responses, stress hormones, amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and intracellular signaling molecules in the pathophysiology of MCI and AD compared to adults. Serum APP, lymphocyte proliferation, total cholinesterase (TChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities, cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-6, and TNF-α), and intracellular signaling molecules (p-ERK, p-CREB, and p-Akt) were measured in the PBMCs of adult, old, MCI, and AD men and women initially and after 3 years in the same population. An age- and disease-associated decline in mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores and lymphocyte proliferation of MCI and AD men and women were observed. An age- and disease-related increase in serum APP, cortisol levels, and TChE activity were observed in men and women. Enhanced production of Th1 cytokine, IL-2, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and suppressed intracellular transcription factors may promote the inflammatory environment in MCI and AD patients. The expression of CREB and Akt was lower in MCI and AD men, while the expression of p-ERK was higher, and p-CREB was lower in MCI and AD women after 3 years. These results suggest that changes in specific intracellular signaling pathways may influence alterations in cell-mediated immunity to promote disease progression in MCI and AD patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2964-2977
Number of pages14
JournalMolecular Neurobiology
Volume61
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2024
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • AD
  • Akt
  • CREB
  • Cytokines
  • ERK
  • Lymphocyte proliferation
  • MCI
  • MMSE

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)

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