ALCAT1 is a polyglycerophospholipid acyltransferase potently regulated by adenine nucleotide and thyroid status

Jingsong Cao, Weiqun Shen, Zhijie Chang, Yuguang Shi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


Acyl-CoA:lysocardiolipin acyltransferase-1 (ALCAT1) catalyzes acylation of lysocardiolipin back to cardiolipin, an important step in cardiolipin remodeling. The present study reports the catalytic properties of ALCAT1 in vitro and its regulation by thyroid hormone status in mouse liver and heart. Recombinant ALCAT1 expressed in Sf9 cells preferred basic pH conditions and did not require divalent cations or integrity of the subcellular membrane for its enzymatic activity. Recombinant ALCAT1 was potently inhibited by ADP and ATP, but not by adenosine nucleotide analogs or other nucleotides, such as UTP and GTP, suggesting that ALCAT1 does not require ATP hydrolysis for its enzyme activity. In addition to cardiolipin, ALCAT1 also catalyzed acylation of other members of the polyglycerophospholipid family, including phosphatidylglycerol, a precursor for cardiolipin synthesis, and bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate, a structural isomer of lysophosphatidylglycerol and a metabolic intermediate of cardiolipin. These findings suggest that ALCAT1 plays a role in the remodeling of other polyglycerophospholipids. In support of a regulatory role of ALCAT1 in cardiolipin remodeling in response to oxidative stress, ALCAT1 expression in liver and heart was significantly downregulated in mice with hypothyroidism and upregulated in mice treated with thyroid hormone, which is known to stimulate mitochondrial activity, oxidative stress, and cardiolipin remodeling.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E647-E653
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Cardiolipin remodeling
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Monolysocardiolipin acyltransferase
  • Oxidative stress
  • Reactive oxygen species

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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