Aging, inflammation, and pneumococcal disease

Angela J. Rodriguez, Carlos J. Orihuela

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and otitis media, and a primary cause of bacteremia and meningitis (Pneumococcal vaccines 1999). As with most infectious diseases, the poorest nations experience the greatest burden of disease. This can be attributed to reduced vaccine use, decreased standards of living, and limited access to supportive critical care (Dopazo et al. 2001; Robinson et al. 2001). Worldwide, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is greatest in children. However, death, as a result of infection, primarily occurs in the elderly (>65 years of age) (Atkinson et al. 2007; Lexau et al. 2005). The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that pneumococcal disease is responsible for 1.6 million deaths annually (Pneumococcal vaccines 1999). Pneumococcal disease in the elderly is characterized by its rapid onset, severity, and high case-fatality rate; in the United States, the mortality rate for the elderly with pneumococcal pneumonia is 13-23%, compared to 5-7% in the general population. Likewise, case-fatality rates for the elderly with pneumococcal bacteremia and meningitis are 60% and 80%, respectively; in contrast, they are 20% and 30% for the general population (Atkinson et al. 2007). Risk factors for IPD include advanced age, alcoholism, bronchial asthma, immunosuppression, lung disease, heart disease, asplenia, diabetes, and institutionalization (Loeb 2004; Mufson 1999). It is of note that the majority of the elderly have one or more underlying medical conditions that puts them at increased risk for IPD (Robinson et al. 2001). Moreover, the elderly experience agerelated changes in immune function that increase their susceptibility to infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationSepsis: New Strategies for Management
PublisherSpringer Berlin Heidelberg
Pages53-68
Number of pages16
ISBN (Print)9783540790006
DOIs
StatePublished - 2008

Fingerprint

Inflammation
Pneumococcal Vaccines
Bacteremia
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Mortality
Pneumococcal Meningitis
Pneumococcal Pneumonia
Institutionalization
Otitis Media
Critical Care
Infection
Meningitis
Immunosuppression
Population
Alcoholism
Lung Diseases
Communicable Diseases
Heart Diseases
Pneumonia
Vaccines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Rodriguez, A. J., & Orihuela, C. J. (2008). Aging, inflammation, and pneumococcal disease. In Sepsis: New Strategies for Management (pp. 53-68). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-79001-3_5

Aging, inflammation, and pneumococcal disease. / Rodriguez, Angela J.; Orihuela, Carlos J.

Sepsis: New Strategies for Management. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2008. p. 53-68.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Rodriguez, AJ & Orihuela, CJ 2008, Aging, inflammation, and pneumococcal disease. in Sepsis: New Strategies for Management. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 53-68. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-79001-3_5
Rodriguez AJ, Orihuela CJ. Aging, inflammation, and pneumococcal disease. In Sepsis: New Strategies for Management. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 2008. p. 53-68 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-79001-3_5
Rodriguez, Angela J. ; Orihuela, Carlos J. / Aging, inflammation, and pneumococcal disease. Sepsis: New Strategies for Management. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2008. pp. 53-68
@inbook{91fd596889834a388f7a4ad51d600d61,
title = "Aging, inflammation, and pneumococcal disease",
abstract = "Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and otitis media, and a primary cause of bacteremia and meningitis (Pneumococcal vaccines 1999). As with most infectious diseases, the poorest nations experience the greatest burden of disease. This can be attributed to reduced vaccine use, decreased standards of living, and limited access to supportive critical care (Dopazo et al. 2001; Robinson et al. 2001). Worldwide, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is greatest in children. However, death, as a result of infection, primarily occurs in the elderly (>65 years of age) (Atkinson et al. 2007; Lexau et al. 2005). The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that pneumococcal disease is responsible for 1.6 million deaths annually (Pneumococcal vaccines 1999). Pneumococcal disease in the elderly is characterized by its rapid onset, severity, and high case-fatality rate; in the United States, the mortality rate for the elderly with pneumococcal pneumonia is 13-23{\%}, compared to 5-7{\%} in the general population. Likewise, case-fatality rates for the elderly with pneumococcal bacteremia and meningitis are 60{\%} and 80{\%}, respectively; in contrast, they are 20{\%} and 30{\%} for the general population (Atkinson et al. 2007). Risk factors for IPD include advanced age, alcoholism, bronchial asthma, immunosuppression, lung disease, heart disease, asplenia, diabetes, and institutionalization (Loeb 2004; Mufson 1999). It is of note that the majority of the elderly have one or more underlying medical conditions that puts them at increased risk for IPD (Robinson et al. 2001). Moreover, the elderly experience agerelated changes in immune function that increase their susceptibility to infection.",
author = "Rodriguez, {Angela J.} and Orihuela, {Carlos J.}",
year = "2008",
doi = "10.1007/978-3-540-79001-3_5",
language = "English (US)",
isbn = "9783540790006",
pages = "53--68",
booktitle = "Sepsis: New Strategies for Management",
publisher = "Springer Berlin Heidelberg",

}

TY - CHAP

T1 - Aging, inflammation, and pneumococcal disease

AU - Rodriguez, Angela J.

AU - Orihuela, Carlos J.

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and otitis media, and a primary cause of bacteremia and meningitis (Pneumococcal vaccines 1999). As with most infectious diseases, the poorest nations experience the greatest burden of disease. This can be attributed to reduced vaccine use, decreased standards of living, and limited access to supportive critical care (Dopazo et al. 2001; Robinson et al. 2001). Worldwide, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is greatest in children. However, death, as a result of infection, primarily occurs in the elderly (>65 years of age) (Atkinson et al. 2007; Lexau et al. 2005). The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that pneumococcal disease is responsible for 1.6 million deaths annually (Pneumococcal vaccines 1999). Pneumococcal disease in the elderly is characterized by its rapid onset, severity, and high case-fatality rate; in the United States, the mortality rate for the elderly with pneumococcal pneumonia is 13-23%, compared to 5-7% in the general population. Likewise, case-fatality rates for the elderly with pneumococcal bacteremia and meningitis are 60% and 80%, respectively; in contrast, they are 20% and 30% for the general population (Atkinson et al. 2007). Risk factors for IPD include advanced age, alcoholism, bronchial asthma, immunosuppression, lung disease, heart disease, asplenia, diabetes, and institutionalization (Loeb 2004; Mufson 1999). It is of note that the majority of the elderly have one or more underlying medical conditions that puts them at increased risk for IPD (Robinson et al. 2001). Moreover, the elderly experience agerelated changes in immune function that increase their susceptibility to infection.

AB - Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and otitis media, and a primary cause of bacteremia and meningitis (Pneumococcal vaccines 1999). As with most infectious diseases, the poorest nations experience the greatest burden of disease. This can be attributed to reduced vaccine use, decreased standards of living, and limited access to supportive critical care (Dopazo et al. 2001; Robinson et al. 2001). Worldwide, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is greatest in children. However, death, as a result of infection, primarily occurs in the elderly (>65 years of age) (Atkinson et al. 2007; Lexau et al. 2005). The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that pneumococcal disease is responsible for 1.6 million deaths annually (Pneumococcal vaccines 1999). Pneumococcal disease in the elderly is characterized by its rapid onset, severity, and high case-fatality rate; in the United States, the mortality rate for the elderly with pneumococcal pneumonia is 13-23%, compared to 5-7% in the general population. Likewise, case-fatality rates for the elderly with pneumococcal bacteremia and meningitis are 60% and 80%, respectively; in contrast, they are 20% and 30% for the general population (Atkinson et al. 2007). Risk factors for IPD include advanced age, alcoholism, bronchial asthma, immunosuppression, lung disease, heart disease, asplenia, diabetes, and institutionalization (Loeb 2004; Mufson 1999). It is of note that the majority of the elderly have one or more underlying medical conditions that puts them at increased risk for IPD (Robinson et al. 2001). Moreover, the elderly experience agerelated changes in immune function that increase their susceptibility to infection.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84892816161&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84892816161&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/978-3-540-79001-3_5

DO - 10.1007/978-3-540-79001-3_5

M3 - Chapter

AN - SCOPUS:84892816161

SN - 9783540790006

SP - 53

EP - 68

BT - Sepsis: New Strategies for Management

PB - Springer Berlin Heidelberg

ER -