Age- and sex-based reference limits and clinical correlates of myocardial strain and synchrony: The framingham heart study

Susan Cheng, Martin G. Larson, Elizabeth L. McCabe, Ewa Osypiuk, Birgitta T. Lehman, Plamen Stanchev, Jayashri Aragam, Emelia J. Benjamin, Scott D. Solomon, Ramachandran S. Vasan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

102 Scopus citations


Background-There is rapidly growing interest in applying measures of myocardial strain and synchrony in clinical investigations and in practice; data are limited regarding their reference ranges in healthy individuals. Methods and Results-We performed speckle-tracking-based echocardiographic measures of left ventricular myocardial strain and synchrony in healthy adults (n=739, mean age 63 years, 64% women) without cardiovascular disease. Reference values were estimated using quantile regression. Age- and sex-based upper (97.5th quantile) limits were: -14.4% to -17.1% (women) and -14.4 to -15.2% (men) for longitudinal strain; -22.3% to -24.7% (women) and -17.9% to -23.7% (men) for circumferential strain; 121 to 165 ms (women) and 143 to 230 ms (men) for longitudinal segmental synchrony (SD of regional time-to-peak strains); and 200 to 222 ms (women) and 216 to 303 ms (men) for transverse segmental synchrony. In multivariable analyses, women had ≈1.7% greater longitudinal strain, ≈2.2% greater transverse strain, and ≈3.2% greater circumferential strain (P<0.0001 for all) compared with men. Older age and higher diastolic blood pressure, even within the normal range, were associated with worse transverse segmental synchrony (P<0.001). Overall, covariates contributed to ≤12% of the variation in myocardial strain or synchrony in this healthy sample. Conclusions-We estimated age- and sex-specific reference limits for measures of left ventricular strain and synchrony in a healthy community-based sample, wherein clinical covariates contributed to only a modest proportion of the variation. These data may facilitate the interpretation of left ventricular strain-based measures obtained in future clinical research and practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)692-699
Number of pages8
JournalCirculation: Cardiovascular Imaging
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Echocardiography
  • Left ventricular function
  • Reference values

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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