Adaptive functioning and academic achievement in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A report from the Children's Oncology Group

Lisa M. Jacola, Julie Baran, Robert B. Noll, Victoria W. Willard, Kristina K. Hardy, Leanne Embry, Stephanie E. Hullmann, Eric C. Larsen, Naomi Winick, John A. Kairalla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: To characterize academic and adaptive skill outcomes in survivors of high-risk B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (HR B-ALL). Methods: Participants were 178 patients enrolled on a nontherapeutic clinical trial that aimed to characterize neurocognitive and functional outcomes (ie, academic achievement and adaptive skills) following treatment for childhood HR B-ALL. Eligible patients were treated on Children's Oncology Group AALL0232 clinical trial that included two treatment randomizations: methotrexate delivery (high or escalating dose) and corticosteroid (dexamethasone or prednisone). Academic achievement and adaptive skills were evaluated at one time point, 8-24 months after completing treatment. Results: Multivariable logistic regression showed no significant association between treatment variables and outcomes after accounting for age at diagnosis, sex, and insurance status. In multivariable analyses accounting for sex and insurance status, survivors <10 years old at diagnosis had significantly lower scores in Math (P =.02). In multivariable analyses accounting for sex and age at diagnosis, scores for children with US public health insurance were significantly lower than those with US private or military insurance across all academic and adaptive skills (all P-values ≤.04). Results from univariate analyses showed that boys had significantly lower scores than girls across all adaptive skill domains (all P-values ≤.04). Conclusion: Regardless of treatment randomization, survivors of HR B-ALL <10 years at diagnosis are at risk for deficits in Math and overall adaptive functioning; overall adaptive skills for boys were significantly poorer. Screening and early intervention for patients at highest risk, particularly young patients and lower resourced families, should be prioritized.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere28913
JournalPediatric Blood and Cancer
Volume68
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2021

Keywords

  • academic outcomes
  • adaptive skills
  • childhood ALL
  • neurocognitive

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Hematology
  • Oncology

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