Acute congestive heart failure: pharmacologic intervention.

G. T. Kennedy

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Acute CHF is a highly unstable condition that requires immediate pharmacologic intervention. Mechanisms that are normally used to control the release of neurohormones are impaired in CHF. Therapeutic interventions produce hemodynamic and clinical benefits in part by restoring a balance of the neurohormonal system. This balance is achieved by interfering with actions of vasoconstriction and potentiating the effects of vasodilation and contractility. To maintain an optimal healing atmosphere, the patient's individualized needs for social support and spiritual beliefs must be considered. How the patient perceives his or her illness may also impact patient hemodynamics and outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)365-375
Number of pages11
JournalCritical care nursing clinics of North America
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1992
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care


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