Activities of newer fluoroquinolones against Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates including those with mutations in the gyrA, parC, and parE loci

J. H. Jorgensen, L. M. Weigel, M. J. Ferraro, J. M. Swenson, F. C. Tenover

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Abstract

Resistance to fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics in Streptococcus pneumoniae has been attributed primarily to specific mutations in the genes for DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parc and ParE). Resistance to some FQs can result from a single mutation in one or more of the genes encoding these essential enzymes. A group of 160 clinical isolates of pneumococci was examined in this study, including 36 ofloxacin-resistant isolates (MICs, ≥8 μg/ml) recovered from patients in North America, France, and Belgium. The susceptibilities of all isolates to clinafloxacin, grepafloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and trovafloxacin were examined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards reference broth microdilution and disk diffusion susceptibility testing methods. Among the ofloxacin-resistant strains, 32 of 36 were also categorized as resistant to levofloxacin, 35 were resistant to sparfloxacin, 29 were resistant to grepafloxacin, and 19 were resistant to trovafloxacin. In vitro susceptibility to clinafloxacin appeared to be least affected by resistance to the other FQs. Eight isolates with high- and low-level resistance to the newer FQs were selected for DNA sequence analysis of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE. The DNA and the inferred amino acid sequences of the resistant strains were compared with the analogous sequences of reference strain S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 and FQ-susceptible laboratory strain R6. Reduced susceptibilities to grepafloxacin and sparfloxacin (MICs, 1 to 2 μg/ml) and trovafloxacin (MICs, 0.5 to 1 μg/ml) were associated with either a mutation in parc that led to a single amino acid substitution (Ser-79 to Phe or Tyr) or double mutations that involved the genes for both GyrA (Set-81 to Phe) and Pare (Asp-435 to Asn). High-level resistance to all of the compounds except clinafloxacin was associated with two or more amino acid substitutions involving both GyrA (Ser-81 to Phe) and ParC (Ser-79 to Phe or Ser-80 to Pro and Asp-83 to Tyr). No mutations were observed in the gyrB sequences of resistant strains. These data indicate that mutations in pneumococcal gyrA, parC, and pare genes all contribute to decreased susceptibility to the newer FQs, and genetic analysis of the QRDR of a single gene, either gyrA or parC, is not predictive of pneumococcal resistance to these agents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)329-334
Number of pages6
JournalAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Volume43
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 1999

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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