Activities of clinafloxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, and trovafloxacin against recent clinical isolates of levofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

J. H. Jorgensen, L. M. Weigel, J. M. Swenson, C. G. Whitney, M. J. Ferraro, F. C. Tenover

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

59 Scopus citations

Abstract

The activities of two investigational fluoroquinolones and three fluoroquinolones that are currently marketed were determined for 182 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The collection included 57 pneumococcal isolates resistant to levofloxacin (MIC ≥ 8 μg/ml) recovered from patients in North America and Europe. All isolates were tested with clinafloxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, and trovafloxacin by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards broth microdilution and disk diffusion susceptibility test methods. Gemifloxacin demonstrated the greatest activity on a per gram basis, followed by clinafloxacin, trovafloxacin, gatifloxacin, and levofloxacin. Scatterplots of the MICs and disk diffusion zone sizes revealed a well-defined separation of levofloxacin-resistant and -susceptible strains when the isolates were tested against clinafloxacin and gatifloxacin. DNA sequence analyses of the quinolone resistance-determining regions of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and pare from 21 of the levofloxacin-resistant strains identified eight different patterns of amino acid changes. Mutations among the four loci had the least effect on the MICs of gemifloxacin and clinafloxacin, while the MICs of gatifloxacin and trovafloxacin increased by up to six doubling dilutions. These data indicate that the newer fluoroquinolones have greater activities than levofloxacin against pneumococci with mutations in the DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV genes. Depending upon pharmacokinetics and safety, the greater potency of these agents could provide improved clinical efficacy against levofloxacin-resistant pneumococcal strains.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2962-2968
Number of pages7
JournalAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Volume44
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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