The current studies investigated the in vitro and in vivo effect of adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) agonists to attenuate allogenic immune activation. We performed MLRs with spleen T lymphocytes and APCs isolated from wild-type and A2AR knockout mice of both C57BL/6 and BALB/c background strains. Two-way MLR-stimulated T cell proliferation was reduced by ATL313, a selective A2AR agonist in a dose-responsive manner (∼70%; 10 nM), an effect reversed by the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 (100 nM). By one-way MLRs, we observed that ATL313's inhibitory effect was due to effects on both T cells and APCs. ATL313 suppressed the activation markers CD25 and CD40L and the release of inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, RANTES, DL-12P70, and IL-2. ATL313 also increased negative costimulatory molecules programmed death-1 and CTLA-4 expressed on T cells. In lymphocytes activated with anti-CD3e mAb, ATL313 inhibited the phosphorylation of Zap70, an effect that was reversed by the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89. In skin transplants, allograft survival was enhanced with ATL313, an effect blocked by ZM241385. These results indicate that A2AR agonists attenuate allogenic recognition by action on both T lymphocytes and APCs in vitro and delayed acute rejection in vivo. We conclude that A2AR agonists may represent a new class of compounds for induction therapy in organ transplantation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy