Cardiac output (CO) measurement is crucial for the guidance of therapeutic decisions in critically ill and high-risk surgical patients. Newly developed completely non-invasive CO technologies are commercially available; however, their accuracy and precision have not recently been evaluated in a meta-analysis. We conducted a systematic search using PubMed, Cochrane Library of Clinical Trials, Scopus, and Web of Science to review published data comparing CO measured by bolus thermodilution with commercially available non-invasive technologies including pulse wave transit time, non-invasive pulse contour analysis, thoracic electrical bioimpedance/bioreactance, and CO2 rebreathing. The non-invasive CO technology was considered acceptable if the pooled estimate of percentage error was <30%, as previously recommended. Using a random-effects model, SD, pooled mean bias, and mean percentage error were calculated. An I2 statistic was also used to evaluate the inter-study heterogeneity. A total of 37 studies (1543 patients) were included. Mean CO of both methods was 4.78 litres min1. Bias was presented as the reference method minus the tested methods in 15 studies. Only six studies assessed the random error (repeatability) of the tested device. The overall random-effects pooled bias (limits of agreement) and the percentage error were 0,13 [2.38 , 2.12] litres min1 and 47%, respectively. Inter-study sensitivity heterogeneity was high (I283%, P<0.001). With a wide percentage error, completely non-invasive CO devices are not interchangeable with bolus thermodilution. Additional studies are warranted to demonstrate their role in improving the quality of care.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine