Abutment disconnection/reconnection affects peri-implant marginal bone levels: A meta-analysis

Theofilos Koutouzis, Fatemeh Gholami, John Reynolds, Tord Lundgren, Georgios A. Kotsakis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Purpose: Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that marginal bone loss can be secondary to repeated disconnection and reconnection of abutments that affect the peri-implant mucosal seal. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the impact of abutment disconnections/reconnections on peri-implant marginal bone level changes. Materials and Methods: To address this question, two reviewers independently performed an electronic search of three major databases up to October 2015 complemented by manual searches. Eligible articles were selected on the basis of prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria after a two-phase search strategy and assessed for risk of bias. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed for marginal bone loss. Results: The authors initially identified 392 titles and abstracts. After evaluation, seven controlled clinical studies were included. Qualitative assessment of the articles revealed a trend toward protective marginal bone level preservation for implants with final abutment placement (FAP) at the time of implant placement compared with implants for which there were multiple abutment placements (MAP). The FAP group exhibited a marginal bone level change ranging from 0.08 to 0.34 mm, whereas the MAP group exhibited a marginal bone level change ranging from 0.09 to 0.55 mm. Meta-analysis of the seven studies reporting on 396 implants showed significantly greater bone loss in cases of multiple abutment disconnections/reconnections. The weighted mean difference in marginal bone loss was 0.19 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.32 mm), favoring bone preservation in the FAP group. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this meta-analysis, abutment disconnection and reconnection significantly affected peri-implant marginal bone levels. These findings pave the way for revisiting current restorative protocols at the restorative treatment planning stage to prevent incipient marginal bone loss.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)575-581
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Bone loss
  • Dental abutments
  • Dental implants
  • Follow-up studies
  • Osseointegration
  • Titanium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oral Surgery


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