IMPORTANCE Men with metastatic prostate cancer who have a poor response to initial androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), as reflected by a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level higher than 4.0 ng/mL after 7 months of ADT, have a poor prognosis, based on historical controls. OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of abiraterone acetate with prednisone in these high-risk patients with a suboptimal response to hormonal induction. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A phase 2 single-arm study was conducted through the National Clinical Trials Network–Southwest Oncology Group. Eligible patients had metastatic prostate cancer and a PSA level higher than 4.0 ng/mL between 6 and 12 months after starting ADT. The PSA level could be rising or falling at the time of enrollment, but had to be higher than 4.0 ng/mL. No previous chemotherapy or secondary hormonal therapies were allowed, except in patients receiving a standard, first-generation antiandrogen agent with a falling PSA level at the time of enrollment; this therapy was continued in this cohort. Abiraterone acetate, 1000 mg, once daily with prednisone, 5 mg, twice daily was administered to all participants. A total of 41 men were enrolled between the trial’s activation on August 9, 2011, and closure on August 1, 2013. Data analysis was conducted from March 21 to November 29, 2016. INTERVENTIONS Abiraterone acetate, 1000 mg, once daily by mouth with prednisone, 5 mg, by mouth twice daily. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary end point was a PSA level of 0.2 ng/mL or lower within 12 months of starting abiraterone acetate plus prednisone. A partial response (PR) was a secondary end point, defined as a PSA level reduction to lower than 4.0 ng/mL but higher than 0.2 ng/mL. RESULTS Of the 41 men enrolled, 1 did not receive any protocol treatment and was excluded from analysis. The median (range) age of the 40 participants was 66 (39-85) years. Five (13%) patients achieved a PSA level of 0.2 ng/mL or lower (95% CI, 4%-27%). Thirteen (33%) additional patients achieved a partial response, with a reduction in the PSA level to lower than 4.0 ng/mL but higher than 0.2 ng/mL. Sixteen (40%) patients had no PSA response and 6 (15%) were not assessable and assumed to be nonresponders. The median progression-free survival was 17.5 months (95% CI, 8.6-25.0 months) and the median overall survival was 25.8 months (95% CI, 15.7-25.8 months). There was 1 incident each of grade 4 adverse events of alanine aminotransferase level elevation and rectal hemorrhage. Eleven patients reported grade 3 adverse events. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This study did not reach its prescribed level of 6 PSA responses of 0.2 ng/mL or lower, although 5 responses were observed. The overall survival and progression-free survival rates observed in this trial are encouraging compared with historical controls. The therapy was generally well tolerated, without any clear signal of any unexpected adverse effects.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research