AAPM Task Group Report 307: Use of EPIDs for Patient-Specific IMRT and VMAT QA

Nesrin Dogan, Ben J. Mijnheer, Kyle Padgett, Adrian Nalichowski, Chuan Wu, Matthew J. Nyflot, Arthur J. Olch, Niko Papanikolaou, Jie Shi, Shannon M. Holmes, Jean Moran, Peter B. Greer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Purpose: Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) have been widely utilized for patient-specific quality assurance (PSQA) and their use for transit dosimetry applications is emerging. Yet there are no specific guidelines on the potential uses, limitations, and correct utilization of EPIDs for these purposes. The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 307 (TG-307) provides a comprehensive review of the physics, modeling, algorithms and clinical experience with EPID-based pre-treatment and transit dosimetry techniques. This review also includes the limitations and challenges in the clinical implementation of EPIDs, including recommendations for commissioning, calibration and validation, routine QA, tolerance levels for gamma analysis and risk-based analysis. Methods: Characteristics of the currently available EPID systems and EPID-based PSQA techniques are reviewed. The details of the physics, modeling, and algorithms for both pre-treatment and transit dosimetry methods are discussed, including clinical experience with different EPID dosimetry systems. Commissioning, calibration, and validation, tolerance levels and recommended tests, are reviewed, and analyzed. Risk-based analysis for EPID dosimetry is also addressed. Results: Clinical experience, commissioning methods and tolerances for EPID-based PSQA system are described for pre-treatment and transit dosimetry applications. The sensitivity, specificity, and clinical results for EPID dosimetry techniques are presented as well as examples of patient-related and machine-related error detection by these dosimetry solutions. Limitations and challenges in clinical implementation of EPIDs for dosimetric purposes are discussed and acceptance and rejection criteria are outlined. Potential causes of and evaluations of pre-treatment and transit dosimetry failures are discussed. Guidelines and recommendations developed in this report are based on the extensive published data on EPID QA along with the clinical experience of the TG-307 members. Conclusion: TG-307 focused on the commercially available EPID-based dosimetric tools and provides guidance for medical physicists in the clinical implementation of EPID-based patient-specific pre-treatment and transit dosimetry QA solutions including intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e865-e903
JournalMedical physics
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • EPID
  • electronic portal imaging device
  • patient-specific EPID QA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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