A Trifocal Model of Nursing Diagnosis: Wellness Reinforced

Jane Kelley, Noreen Frisch, Kay Avant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


As nurses have identified the phenomena of concern to nursing and developed diagnostic language, there has been a persistent omission of diagnostic labels that reflect health and a wellness orientation. The fact that the term “diagnosis” has been identified with problems and deficits has impeded work on wellness diagnoses. Further, lack of consensus regarding a definition of health further complicates work in this area. The authors propose a model that incorporates a category of “opportunity to enhance,” in addition to the categories of “problem” and “high risk” to derive a trifocal model of nursing diagnoses. Examples from nursing practice are given.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)123-128
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Nursing Terminologies and Classifications
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 1995
Externally publishedYes


  • Collaborative problems
  • nursing diagnosis
  • wellness diagnosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Fundamentals and skills
  • Nursing (miscellaneous)


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