A SARS-CoV-2 protein interaction map reveals targets for drug repurposing

David E. Gordon, Gwendolyn M. Jang, Mehdi Bouhaddou, Jiewei Xu, Kirsten Obernier, Kris M. White, Matthew J. O’Meara, Veronica V. Rezelj, Jeffrey Z. Guo, Danielle L. Swaney, Tia A. Tummino, Ruth Hüttenhain, Robyn M. Kaake, Alicia L. Richards, Beril Tutuncuoglu, Helene Foussard, Jyoti Batra, Kelsey Haas, Maya Modak, Minkyu KimPaige Haas, Benjamin J. Polacco, Hannes Braberg, Jacqueline M. Fabius, Manon Eckhardt, Margaret Soucheray, Melanie J. Bennett, Merve Cakir, Michael J. McGregor, Qiongyu Li, Bjoern Meyer, Ferdinand Roesch, Thomas Vallet, Alice Mac Kain, Lisa Miorin, Elena Moreno, Zun Zar Chi Naing, Yuan Zhou, Shiming Peng, Ying Shi, Ziyang Zhang, Wenqi Shen, Ilsa T. Kirby, James E. Melnyk, John S. Chorba, Kevin Lou, Shizhong A. Dai, Inigo Barrio-Hernandez, Danish Memon, Claudia Hernandez-Armenta, Jiankun Lyu, Christopher J.P. Mathy, Tina Perica, Kala Bharath Pilla, Sai J. Ganesan, Daniel J. Saltzberg, Ramachandran Rakesh, Xi Liu, Sara B. Rosenthal, Lorenzo Calviello, Srivats Venkataramanan, Jose Liboy-Lugo, Yizhu Lin, Xi Ping Huang, Yong Feng Liu, Stephanie A. Wankowicz, Markus Bohn, Maliheh Safari, Fatima S. Ugur, Cassandra Koh, Nastaran Sadat Savar, Quang Dinh Tran, Djoshkun Shengjuler, Sabrina J. Fletcher, Michael C. O’Neal, Yiming Cai, Jason C.J. Chang, David J. Broadhurst, Saker Klippsten, Phillip P. Sharp, Nicole A. Wenzell, Duygu Kuzuoglu-Ozturk, Hao Yuan Wang, Raphael Trenker, Janet M. Young, Devin A. Cavero, Joseph Hiatt, Theodore L. Roth, Ujjwal Rathore, Advait Subramanian, Julia Noack, Mathieu Hubert, Robert M. Stroud, Alan D. Frankel, Oren S. Rosenberg, Kliment A. Verba, David A. Agard, Melanie Ott, Michael Emerman, Natalia Jura, Mark von Zastrow, Eric Verdin, Alan Ashworth, Olivier Schwartz, Christophe d’Enfert, Shaeri Mukherjee, Matt Jacobson, Harmit S. Malik, Danica G. Fujimori, Trey Ideker, Charles S. Craik, Stephen N. Floor, James S. Fraser, John D. Gross, Andrej Sali, Bryan L. Roth, Davide Ruggero, Jack Taunton, Tanja Kortemme, Pedro Beltrao, Marco Vignuzzi, Adolfo García-Sastre, Kevan M. Shokat, Brian K. Shoichet, Nevan J. Krogan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2997 Scopus citations


A newly described coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has infected over 2.3 million people, led to the death of more than 160,000 individuals and caused worldwide social and economic disruption1,2. There are no antiviral drugs with proven clinical efficacy for the treatment of COVID-19, nor are there any vaccines that prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2, and efforts to develop drugs and vaccines are hampered by the limited knowledge of the molecular details of how SARS-CoV-2 infects cells. Here we cloned, tagged and expressed 26 of the 29 SARS-CoV-2 proteins in human cells and identified the human proteins that physically associated with each of the SARS-CoV-2 proteins using affinity-purification mass spectrometry, identifying 332 high-confidence protein–protein interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and human proteins. Among these, we identify 66 druggable human proteins or host factors targeted by 69 compounds (of which, 29 drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, 12 are in clinical trials and 28 are preclinical compounds). We screened a subset of these in multiple viral assays and found two sets of pharmacological agents that displayed antiviral activity: inhibitors of mRNA translation and predicted regulators of the sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors. Further studies of these host-factor-targeting agents, including their combination with drugs that directly target viral enzymes, could lead to a therapeutic regimen to treat COVID-19.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)459-468
Number of pages10
Issue number7816
StatePublished - Jul 16 2020
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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