A Review of Casualties Transported to Role 2 Medical Treatment Facilities in Afghanistan

Russ S. Kotwal, Amanda M. Staudt, Jennifer D. Trevino, Krystal K. Valdez-Delgado, Tuan D. Le, Jennifer M. Gurney, Samual W. Sauer, Stacy A. Shackelford, Zsolt T. Stockinger, Elizabeth A. Mann-Salinas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Scopus citations


Critically injured trauma patients benefit from timely transport and care. Accordingly, the provision of rapid transport and effective treatment capabilities in appropriately close proximity to the point of injury will optimize time and survival. Pre-transport tactical combat casualty care, rapid transport with en route casualty care, and advanced damage control resuscitation and surgery delivered early by small, mobile, forward-positioned Role 2 medical treatment facilities have potential to reduce morbidity and mortality from trauma. This retrospective review and descriptive analysis of trauma patients transported from Role 1 entities to Role 2 facilities in Afghanistan from 2008 to 2014 found casualties to be diverse in affiliation and delivered by various types and modes of transport. Air medical evacuation provided transport for most patients, while the shortest transport time was seen with air casualty evacuation. Although relatively little data were collected for air casualty evacuation, this rapid mode of transport remains an operationally important method of transport on the battlefield. For prehospital care provided before and during transport, continued leadership and training emphasis should be placed on the administration and documentation of tactical combat casualty care as delivered by both medical and non-medical first responders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)134-145
Number of pages12
JournalMilitary Medicine
StatePublished - Mar 1 2018
Externally publishedYes



  • battlefield
  • evacuation
  • prehospital
  • tactical combat casualty care
  • transport
  • trauma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Kotwal, R. S., Staudt, A. M., Trevino, J. D., Valdez-Delgado, K. K., Le, T. D., Gurney, J. M., Sauer, S. W., Shackelford, S. A., Stockinger, Z. T., & Mann-Salinas, E. A. (2018). A Review of Casualties Transported to Role 2 Medical Treatment Facilities in Afghanistan. Military Medicine, 183, 134-145. https://doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usx211