Purpose: We investigated the mechanisms of how TGFβ pathway is activated by chemotherapeutics and whether a novel TGFβ trap called RER can block chemotherapeutics-induced TGFβ pathway activation and enhance their antitumor activity in gynecologic cancer. Patients and Methods: An unbiased bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed genes in 31 ovarian cases due to chemotherapy was used to identify altered master regulators. Phosphor-ylated Smad2 was determined in 30 paired cervical cancer using IHC. Furthermore, the effects of chemotherapeutics on TGFβ signaling and function, and the effects of RER on chemotherapy-induced TGFβ signaling were determined in gynecologic cancer cells. Results: Chemotherapy-induced transcriptome alteration in ovarian cancer was significantly associated with TGFβ signaling activation. Chemotherapy was found to activate TGFβ signaling as indicated by phosphorylated Smad2 in paired cervical tumor samples (pre- and post-chemotherapy). Similar to TGFβ1, chemotherapeutics were found to stimulate Smad2/3 phosphorylation, cell migration, and markers related to epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells (CSC). These TGFβ-like effects were due to the stimulation of TGFβ1 expression and secretion, and could all be abrogated by TGFβ inhibitors including a novel TGFβ trap protein called RER both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, combination treatment with RER and cisplatin showed a higher tumor inhibitory activity than either agent alone in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer. Conclusions: Chemotherapeutics can stimulate TGFβ1 production and consequently enhance TGFβ signaling, EMT, and CSC features resulting in reduced chemo-sensitivity. Combination therapy with a TGFβ inhibitor should alleviate this unintended side effect of chemotherapeutics and enhance their therapeutic efficacy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research