A combined approach of amniotic membrane and oral mucosa transplantation for fornix reconstruction in severe symblepharon

Ahmad Kheirkhah, Reza Ghaffari, Reza Kaghazkanani, Hassan Hashemi, Mahmoud Jabbarvand Behrouz, Vadrevu K. Raju

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

59 Scopus citations


PURPOSE:: To evaluate the results of a combined approach of cicatrix lysis, intraoperative mitomycin C (MMC) application, oral mucosal transplantation (OMT), and amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for surgery of severe symblepharon. METHODS:: This prospective study included 32 eyes with severe symblepharon in which after cicatrix lysis the residual conjunctiva was not enough to cover the tarsus (grade III symblepharon) or there was no residual conjunctiva (grade IV symblepharon). After symblepharon lysis and MMC application, OMT was used to cover the tarsus throughout to fornix, and AMT with fibrin glue was performed to cover the exposed sclera. Outcome was defined as complete success (restoration of an anatomically deep fornix), partial success (focal recurrence of scar), or failure (return of symblepharon). RESULTS:: Etiology of symblepharon included chemical burn (n = 16), thermal burn (n = 7), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (n = 5), mucous membrane pemphigoid (n = 2), xeroderma pigmentosum (n = 1), and graft-versus-host disease (n = 1). Motility restriction was present in 87.5% preoperatively. After a mean follow-up of 16.4 ± 7.6 months, the anatomical outcome included complete success in 84.4%, partial success in 9.4%, and failure in 6.2%. In grades III and IV symblephara, the outcomes were complete success in 89.5% and 76.9%, partial success in 10.5% and 7.7%, and failure in none and 15.4%, respectively. No motility restriction was noted in any eye postoperatively. Complications included entropion (n = 2), ocular surface keratinization (n = 1), and pyogenic granuloma (n = 4). CONCLUSIONS:: In severe symblepharon, a combined approach of cicatrix lysis, MMC application, OMT, and sutureless AMT was a safe and effective technique for fornix reconstruction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)155-160
Number of pages6
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • amniotic membrane transplantation
  • mitomycin C
  • oral mucosal transplantation
  • symblepharon

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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