Recent studies have failed to show an improvement in cardiovascular mortality with intensive glycemic control and aggressive glycated hemoglobin (A1c) targets less than 7.0%. Excessive hypoglycemic episodes with intensive glucose-lowering therapy are thought to be a major factor in the failure to show cardiovascular benefit in these trials. In this article, we review the physiology of glucose metabolism, the cardiovascular pathophysiology of hypoglycemia, and the trials with an intensive glucose-lowering strategy that have studied microvascular and macrovascular complications. We also review the current non-insulin drugs available for the treatment of diabetes and their potential hypoglycemic and cardiovascular impacts.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine