A brief survey of pineal Gland-immune system interrelationships

Juan M. Guerrero, Russel J. Reiter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

173 Scopus citations


The present paper summarizes evidence that support the hypothesis of the existence of bilateral interactions between pineal gland and the immune system. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments show that the pineal gland, via its hormone melatonin, enhances immune function. Mechanisms involved in this immunostimulatory effect are not well understood, but some evidence suggests the existence of specific binding sites for melatonin on immune cells. Moreover, the release of opioid peptides and interleukin-2 by T-helper cells may also participate in this mechanism by activating, at least natural killer activity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Some immune signals, i.e., gamma-interferon, may be involved in regulating pineal function, thereby representing a regulatory mechanism in the opposite direction. The physiological and clinical significance of these data remains to be studied.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)91-113
Number of pages23
JournalEndocrine Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1992

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology


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