A 1-Year Randomized Trial of Calcium Acetate Versus Sevelamer on Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Hemodialysis Patients With Comparable Lipid Control: The Calcium Acetate Renagel Evaluation-2 (CARE-2) Study

Wajeh Qunibi, Moustafa Moustafa, Larry R. Muenz, David Y. He, Paul D. Kessler, Jose A. Diaz-Buxo, Mathew Budoff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

254 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Previous clinical trials showed that progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) may be slower in hemodialysis patients treated with sevelamer than those treated with calcium-based phosphate binders. Because sevelamer decreases low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, we hypothesized that intensive lowering of LDL-C levels with atorvastatin in hemodialysis patients treated with calcium acetate would result in CAC progression rates similar to those in sevelamer-treated patients. Study Design: Randomized, controlled, open-label, noninferiority trial with an upper bound for the noninferiority margin of 1.8. Setting & Participants: 203 prevalent hemodialysis patients at 26 dialysis centers with serum phosphorus levels greater than 5.5 mg/dL, LDL-C levels greater than 80 mg/dL, and baseline CAC scores of 30 to 7,000 units assessed by means of electron-beam computed tomography. Interventions: 103 patients were randomly assigned to calcium acetate, and 100 patients to sevelamer for 12 months to achieve phosphorus levels of 3.5 to 5.5 mg/dL. Atorvastatin was added to achieve serum LDL-C levels less than 70 mg/dL in both groups. Outcomes & Measurements: The primary end point was change in CAC score assessed by means of electron-beam computed tomography. Results: After 12 months, mean serum LDL-C levels decreased to 68.8 ± 22.0 mg/dL in the calcium-acetate group and 62.4 ± 23.0 mg/dL in the sevelamer group (P = 0.3). Geometric mean increases in CAC scores were 35% in the calcium-acetate group and 39% in the sevelamer group, with a covariate-adjusted calcium acetate-sevelamer ratio of 0.994 (95% confidence interval, 0.851 to 1.161). Limitations: Treatment assignment was not blinded. The 1.8 a priori margin is large, CAC is a surrogate outcome, duration of treatment was short, and dropout rate was high. Conclusions: With intensive lowering of LDL-C levels for 1 year, hemodialysis patients treated with either calcium acetate or sevelamer experienced similar progression of CAC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)952-965
Number of pages14
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Volume51
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2008

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • atorvastatin
  • cholesterol
  • dialysis
  • dyslipidemia
  • electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT)
  • hyperphosphatemia
  • low-density lipoprotein
  • secondary hyperparathyroidism
  • statins
  • vascular calcification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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